Trudy E. Bell, M.A.
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1913 Flood - Articles and Research
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Craig B. Waff, Ph.D., 1946-2012
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'Our National Calamity' research blog posts
2007 - 1913 NE-IA-MO tornadoes text
2007 - 1913 NE-IA-MO tornadoes slides
2009 - 1913 Aid and Ambivalence text
2009 - 1913 Aid and Ambivalence slides
2009 - 1913 flood in New York
2006 - "Forgotten Waters" Traces of IHS
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1913 Flood - Articles and Research

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Centennial blog: "'Our National Calamity': The Great Easter 1913 Flood" featuring original research (including by guest authors) and detailed references, was launched November 2012. A searchable Word doc of the first 32 installments can be downloaded from the top link at left "'Our National Calamity' research blog posts." Notable posts with essential background: "Great Easter 1913 Dust Storm, Prairie Fires—and Red Rains" (uploaded December 1): Disaster also hit the Great Plains--who knew? "Earth-Shaking Mystery" (uploaded October 1, 2014): could the megatonnage of floodwaters and mud have triggered earthquakes in Knoxiville, Tennessee? "Benchmarking 'Extreme'" (uploaded July 1, 2014): what modern infrastructure--including toxic waste sites and nuclear reactors--would be lie in harm's way should 1913-scale tornadoes and flood recur today in the same places? "Like a War Zone" (uploaded March 16, 2013): $$destruction exceeded that from Hurricanes Katrina or Sandy, centered on the industrial north; "'Death Rode Ruthless...'" (uploaded February 18, 2013): more than 1,000 people died. Follow announcements of new installments on Twitter @trudyebell

Media appearances: Interviewed on camera for the following documentaries: When Every River Turned Against Us: Lessons from the Great 1913 Flood (WFYI PBS TV, Indianapolis; Producer: Gary Harrison--see full 30-minute film and 3-minute trailer; film captured a 2014 regional Emmy Award for a documentary!); and The 1913 Flood: Shadow Over the Miami Valley (Producer: Sam Ashworth). Interviewed for Channel 5 WEWS News, Cleveland--especially note the additional full-length 7-minute interview. Featured guest along with Cleveland National Weather Service senior hydrologist Sarah Jamison on 55-minute NPR live call-in show The Sound of Ideas, Cleveland, WCPN 90.3 FM, March 27, 2013--podcast and studio video are here.

The United States had no warning. The nation's most widespread natural catastrophe struck Easter weekend 1913 as the grand finale of what Mabel T. Boardman (volunteer head of the Red Cross who succeeded its founder Clara Barton) later called "an epidemic of disasters." Beginning with a dozen tornadoes in five states - including one that still ranks as Nebraska's deadliest tornado through downtown Omaha - the catastrophic sequence of events culminated with record flooding across all or parts of 15 states, which immobilized the industrial heart of the nation. 

In July 2003, a chance reading of historical markers on a bicycle trip sent me on what has become a major, systematic historical detective search to uncover the full story of this national calamity, which made front-page headlines worldwide and generated at least five "instant books" and innumerable commemoratives (see "Profiting from Pain"). I also wanted to find out how and why - despite being more fatal than the 1871 Chicago fire (see "'Death Rode Ruthless'") and more devastating to property than the 1906 San Francisco earthquake (to which disasters it was often compared at the time) or even than Hurricanes Katrina (2005) and Sandy (2012) (see "Like a War Zone") - the nation's only natural catastrophe to disrupt communications and manufacturing across the industrial north as well as down the Mississippi River throughout the agricultural south has been virtually forgotten.

Fascinated that something so huge [see U.S. map below] could now be so unknown, over the past eleven years I've researched newspapers on microfilm, official government reports, photographs, and correspondence in the National Archives, state historical archives, and special collections of major public libraries - crisscrossing the nation from as far west as Topeka and Omaha, to as far east as Boston, New York City, and Washington, D. C., and points

Map of the "epidemic of disasters" across the United States on Easter weekend 1913
1913 March 23-27 tornados, rainfall, and dust storms plotted to scale Left: Extent of the country covered by 1913 tornadoes, electrified dust storm (the worst experienced until the Dust Bowl years of the 1930s), and rainfall of March 23-27, plotted to scale. Subsequent flood crests roaring down the Mississippi River burst levees and devastated vast sections of Arkansas, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Assembled by Trudy E. Bell from data from multiple sources. (Not shown is the Good Friday March 21 hurricane-force wind and sleet storm that extended from Quebec to the Gulf of Mexico, downing wireline communications, nor the tornadoes that devastated a Chicago suburb and destroyed much of Lower Peachtree, Alabama.)

Right: Five of the "instant books" that were published within two months of the tornadoes and floods in 1913. Books in the research collection of Trudy E. Bell.

south all along the Mississippi River to New Orleans. So far, I've published one book and half a dozen print articles (see below) and delivered several unpublished research papers at historical conferences (now here made publicly accessible for the first time); I am also midway through the process of compiling a comprehensive bibliography of primary and secondary references and locations. In 2009, I was a Filson Fellow for a week of research in residence at the Filson Historical Society in Louisville, Kentucky. My ultimate goal is to write the definitive book on the Great Easter national calamity of 1913.

Why? Historically, it's a whale of a story with marvelous characters. Its most prominent national hero was a crook - John H. Patterson, founder of National Cash Register (NCR) in Dayton, who along with two dozen NCR executives had just been convicted in Federal Court of violating the Sherman Antitrust Act, and whose conviction was under appeal. Although technically a felon, Patterson was given charge of part of Dayton under martial law (see "The Villiain Who Stole the Flood"). Another major figure was Ohio's Governor James M. Cox, "boy publisher" of the Dayton Daily News, who effectively co-opted the nation's 1913 Great Easter Flood and made it specifically the Great Dayton Flood, and who later ran for U.S. President on the strength of his executive ability in rebuilding the ravaged state of Ohio - which after the waters receded lay in utter ruins as if after a war (see "The Governor's Ear"). There was also newly inaugurated President Woodrow Wilson, who sent the Secretary of War into battle against the raging waters. There was engineer Arthur E. Morgan, whose innovative flood control project - the Miami Conservancy District, then the largest engineering project in the world - has protected southwest Ohio and the city of Dayton ever since; his work ultimately led him to be appointed first head of the Tennessee Valley Authority by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (see "Morgan's Cowboys" and "Morgan's Pyramids"). There were also the thousand prisoners of an Indiana penitentiary whose beloved warden allowed them to save the town of Jeffersonville from being engulfed by the Ohio River, and whose residents were so grateful they feted the prisoners with a bountiful feast (see "The Prisoners' Feast"). And there were the fledgling institutions of the Boy Scouts of America and Rotary, whose members' spontaneous outpouring of aid to the victims of the 1913 tornados and flood led them to discover their true mission of humanitarian service. Working with the Red Cross and the Chamber of Commerce, the city of Cleveland pioneered the innovative technique of federated fundraising and giving of aid. On the dark side, across the tornado-devastated and flooded regions, sufferers who had lost everything in the flood wrestled to be recognized as victims worthy of compassion and assistance, rather than turned away branded with the stigma of being undeserving paupers.

More importantly for people today, the 1913 natural disaster is still the catastrophe of record for sheer geographical scope and destruction of the heart of industrial America. Thus, its meteorological conditions and its engineering consequences - from the virtual leveling of major cities to the destruction of power plants, wastewater treatment plants, highways, railroad systems, communications systems, and much else - is a benchmark with much to teach us today in the current era of intensifying storm systems.

Two societal concerns highly relevant today.

First, a 1913-scale flood to the industrial north could happen again (see "Be Very Afraid"). The storm system that caused it was an unusually powerful version of a normal winter storm system on the Colorado track - a path followed commonly by Midwest winter storms. In this 21st-century era of increasingly powerful storms due to climate change, what could the nation learn from the 1913 disaster in how to prepare - and recover? 

Second, how could something so vast and transformative be so forgotten? This question is perennially uppermost in my mind. Yes, the death of J.P. Morgan, the fall of Adrianople, a hunger strike of British suffragette Sylvia Pankhurst, and other world events eventually swept the 1913 disaster from newspaper front pages. But it is also clear that some forgetting was quite deliberate and intentional - either because it was too horrific to remember, or because whole cities did not want their credit downgraded and so publicly covered up the scale of their true damages. Indeed, some city leaders (including John Patterson) almost welcomed the flood's wholesale sweeping the land clear as an opportunity to rebuild modern structures from scratch. But what crucial lessons in warning and recovery - and repeating mistakes - has posterity lost through such collective amnesia?

Notable media appearances (videos) discussing the 1913 flood:

2:30-minute video segment on Channel 5 WEWS 6 PM News, March 19, 2013, that segues into a 5:30-minute extended excerpt from the longer interview at "Weekend marks the 100-year anniversary of the flood of 1913 that killed hundreds in Ohio"

50-minute audio podcast plus televised video round-table discussion "The Flood of 1913" with Mike McIntyre on "The Sound of Ideas," WVIZ/WCPN Cleveland Public TV Ideastream, along with fellow guest Sarah Jamison, hydrologist at the Cleveland office of the National Weather Service, March 27, 2013

(page last updated December 1, 2014.)

Below are my print publications so far on the Great Easter 1913 tornados and floods, including access to the text and slides of unpublished drafts of presentations at historical conferences. If a print magazine or newspaper has also published an article online, I have included a link directly to the PDF or HTML (about two-thirds of the articles). To editors: If you wish to read an article not available online, please contact me directly to request a copy. Much of my analytical research is also published online through my research blog "'Our National Calamity;' The Great Easter 1913 Flood," whose two dozen installments total text now approaching the length of a book, complete with extensive documentation. See the top of the far left column on this page to download a complete table of contents.

Roll your mouse over the thumbnails of the print magazine or newspaper pages; those with links should turn your cursor into a hand. Depending on your browser, the article pages with links may also appear outlined in color. Note: In Microsoft Internet Explorer, you will also see a few details about each article - such as magazine and publication date - if you run your mouse over the page; other browsers, such as Safari and Firefox, may not reveal the hidden text or color outlines, but should still change your cursor to a hand on any page with a link so you can click through to the article online.

Wrote article "Managing 1913: Ohio's Worst Emergency" for winter 2013 issue of Ohion's Emergency Management Newsletter
2013. "Managing 1913: Ohio's Worst Emergency," State of Ohio's Emergency Management Newsletter, Winter/February, pp. 2-3. Article reprinted in the spring issue of Ohio Responds (the State of Ohio's newsletter for the Ohio Citizens Corps and Ohio Medical Reserve Corps), p. 4

This cover feature was based in part on a talk I gave in November 2011 at the Conference on New York State History.    2013. "Angry Waters," New York Archives 12 (3): 12-17, Winter. The Great 1913 Flood in New York brought two significant legacies to the state and the nation: the creation of Great Sacandaga Lake (in Fulton, Saratoga, and Hamilton Counties) as part of a statewide system of reservoirs to control the flow of the Hudson River; and dramatic proof of the effectiveness of chlorinating drinking water to combat typhoid fever and other water-borne diseases. See also "Rescuing Albany's Water."

lead feature in the March 2011 issue of The Rotarian - because as a result of this most widespread disaster in U.S. history, Rotary discovered its mission of humanitarian service - article is based on original archival research  
2011. "The Great Flood of 1913," The Rotarian 189 (9): 30-37, March. Rotary (then called the International Association of Rotary Clubs) was founded in 1905 as a business service organization - but the spontaneous outpouring of prodigious aid from Rotarians led its members and leadership alike to discover Rotary's true mission in humanitarian service. Article based in part on discovery of unpublished correspondence, minutes, and other documents in the historical archives of Rotary International, including in off-site storage.

Designing Against Disease, The Bent of Tau Beta Pi, Winter 2010 - how sanitary engineers designed and built municipal water purification and sewage treatment facilities - altho the 1913 flood is not mentioned, typhoid was of urgent concern then  2010. "Designing Against Disease: Engineers and Enteric Fever," The Bent  101 (1): 13-18, Winter. Although not specifically mentioning the 1913 flood, this research and article was triggered by the need to understand the frightened concern and actions taken to prevent typhoid fever after the flood contaminated supplies with human waste from overturned outhouses. It also describes the Albany water treatment plant that was flooded in 1913 by the record rise of the Hudson River.

Cover story in Timeline of the Ohio Historical Society, Jan-Mar 2009 - turned the lowlands of Ohio into turbulent inland seas all across the state    2009. "Swept Away: The Great 1913 Flood," Timeline (Ohio Historical Society) 26 (1): 38-54, January-March. This comprehensive article, 17 magazine pages long, recounts the devastation of the 1913 flood around the entire state of Ohio as well as the role of John H. Patterson in Dayton, and includes archival photographs of the ruination in a dozen Ohio cities. [Editors: contact me for a copy.]

Great Dayton Flood of 1913, Arcadia 2008 - the 1913 flood was the most geographically widespread natural disaster the nation had suffered, and still stands as Ohio's worst weather disaster - see articles for more about the 1913 flood  2008. The Great Dayton Flood of 1913 (Arcadia Publishing), 128 pages. Some 200 images (courtesy of the Dayton Metro Library, the National Cash Register Archive at Dayton History, and the Miami Conservancy District) document high water, rescue, devastation, relief, resolve, recovery, and renewal during and after the 1913 flood in Dayton alone. Along the way, it corrects some long-perpetuated errors in the meteorology of the storm system, and culminates with the story of the innovative engineering of the Miami Conservancy District that has protected Dayton (and southwest Ohio) ever since. [Editors: contact me if you wish to see excerpts.]

Natural Disaster, Ohio magazine, June 2007 - popular article about Ohio's worst natural disaster   2007.  "Natural Disaster," Ohio magazine 30 (3): 54-57, June. A short popular account of the 1913 flood and devastation in Dayton and around the rest of Ohio, including the leadership of John H. Patterson.

Cover story of Traces of the Indiana Historical Society, Spring 2006 - the 1913 flood was also Indiana's worst flood  2006. "Forgotten Waters: Indiana's Great Easter Flood of 1913," Traces (Indiana Historical Society) 18 (2): 4-15, Spring. This long article (12 magazine pages) documents in text and photographs the fact that the 1913 flood was not only Ohio's worst natural disaster, but also Indiana's. [Permission to make PDF available courtesy Traces of the Indiana Historical Society.]

Taking Engineering by Storm, The Bent of Tau Beta Pi, Winter 2004 - the 1913 flood and its effects on flood control technology and national policy  2004. "Taking Engineering by Storm," The Bent 95 (1): 15-22, Winter. Recounts the 1913 flood in Dayton and southwest Ohio, detailing Arthur Morgan's flood control innovations in the Miami Valley Conservancy District - including dry dams and the hydraulic jump, plus innovations in managing large-scale, complex engineering projects - management techniques later adapted for the Tennessee Valley Authority and even NASA's Apollo missions to moon. 

Draft footnoted research papers of work in progress presented at historical conferences: 

(Text and slides of some of the papers below also may be accessed from the menu at upper left of this page.)

"The Great Easter 1913 'Midwest' Flood in New York State." Conference on New York State History, State University of New York, Plattsburgh, New York, June. Paper presents original research about effects of the 1913 flood across New York State, including record flooding of the Hudson River that knocked out the Albany water treatment plant, and the subsequent movement to regulate flood heights of the Hudson. Includes one graph. 
2009. “Aid and Ambivalence: Contradictory Responses of Victims Toward Disaster Relief During the Great Easter 1913 Tornadoes and Flood,” U.S. Senator Rush D. Holt History Conference (theme: “Worlds Turned Upside Down: Crisis, Calamity, and Cataclysm), West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, April. Paper explores how some individuals and towns refused disaster relief aid - even though they may have been rendered physically destitute by the disaster - in order to preserve personal or cultural values about not being seen as paupers (i.e., the "undeserving" poor). Slides also appear here.
2007. “The Devastating Nebraska–Iowa–Kansas–Missouri Tornadoes of Easter 1913,” Missouri Valley History Conference, Omaha, Nebraska, March. Paper presents original research and analysis documenting that there were more tornadoes over a wider area in the Easter 1913 supercell outbreak than is generally recognized, and that their paths of destruction were longer. Slides, which include new maps, appear here.
2006. “Recovering From the Great Easter Flood of 1913,” at a special conference called "After Katrina," Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, June. Talk, not written out in a detailed draft, compared different Federal and local responses in 1913 vs. 2005; the principal difference was that in 1913 individuals were encouraged to return as soon as possible to clean and rebuild.
2006. “The Great Easter Flood of 1913: The United States’ Forgotten Most Widespread Natural Disaster,” special featured speaker, Missouri Valley History Conference in Omaha, Nebraska, February. General introduction because the disaster was news to many of the historians, including the conference organizer, who asked if I would turn my paper from a regular talk into an evening presentation. Talk was not written out in a detailed draft; much of the paper's information appears as background in the other papers and articles.

Keynote guest lectures (or other guest appearance) during the 1913 flood centennial (links go to a relevant page of each organization's website):

2014. Speaker, Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Center for Climate and Energy Decision Making, on "Extreme Weather and Today's Engineered Infrastructure: Lessons from the 1913 Flood," April 22.

2014. Panelist with Emmy Award-winning filmmaker Gary Harrison, moderated by Manuela Johnson (State Disaster Relief Fund, Indiana Department of Homeland Security); conference "Operation Stay Afloat 2014," Indianapolis, IN, March 13.

2013. Panelist along with Scott Morlock (Deputy Director, U.S. Geological Survey Indiana Water Science), John Hill (Executive Director, Indiana Department of Homeland Security), and Siavash Beik (Principal Engineer, Christopher B. Burke Engineering, LLC), moderated by Steve Bray (News Director and Chief Meteorologist, WISH-YV); Indiana Historical Society, Indianapolis, after premier screening of WFYI documentary When Every River Turned Against Us, directed by Emmy Award-Winning filmmaker Gary Harrison, November 8.

2013. Guest speaker, "Ohio's 'Katrina': The Great Easter 1913 Flood," Lakewood Historical Society and Lakewood Public Library; at Main Auditorium, Lakewood Public Library, Ohio, October 2.

2013. Keynote speaker, "Indiana's 'Katrina': The Great Easter 1913 Flood," 2013 Annual Conference, Indiana Association for Floodplain and Stormwater Management (INAFSM), September 11. Speaker presentations; my slides are here.

2013. Guest speaker, "The Great Easter 1913 Tornadoes and Flood: How Rotary Discovered its Humanitarian Mission," Santa Cruz Rotary Club, August 23. 

2013. Guest speaker, "The Great Easter 1913 Tornadoes and Flood: How Rotary Discovered its Humanitarian Mission," Watsonville Rotary Club, California, July 17.

2013. Guest speaker,
"The Great Easter 1913 Tornadoes and Flood: How Rotary Discovered its Humanitarian Mission," Lakewood-Rocky River Sunrise Rotary Club, Don Umerley Civic Center, 21016 Hilliard Blvd., Rocky River, OH, April 24.

2013. Guest with Sarah Jamison (hydrologist, National Weather Center, Cleveland) on 1-hour call-in show devoted to "The Flood of 1913" on "The Sound of Ideas" (WCPN 89.3 FM radio; televised WVIZ Channel 25 Ohio channel), March 27. Audio podcast and televised studio appearance available.

2013. Lyceum Lecturer at Cuyahoga Valley National Park (Happy Days Lodge, Peninsula, OH), speaking to sell-out crowd of 280 on "The Great Easter 1913 Flood: Ohio's Worst Natural Disaster--and Cleveland as First Responder," March 22.

2013. One of three featured guests (the other two were Eloise Batic and Angele Giacomelli of the Indiana Historical Society) discussing "Flood of 1913, Worst in State History," on the one-hour radio show "Hoosier History Live!" hosted by Nelson Price, WICR 88.7 FM, Indianapolis, IN, March 9.

"Ohio's Greatest Disaster: The 1913 Flood in Hamilton and Beyond," sponsored by the Michael J. Colligan History Project, Parrish Auditorium, Harry T. Wilks Conference Center, Miami University Hamilton, Hamilton, OH, March 5. Video of my talk is about a quarter of the way down this page on the Colligan site (search for my name); the video was shot in several segments.

"The Great Easter 1913 Flood: Ohio's Worst Natural Disaster--And its Legacies," 70th Annual Meeting of the Ohio Federation of Soil and Water Conservation Districts (OFSWCD); (theme: "70 Years of Conservation: Events That Shaped Our Future"), Columbus Renaissance Hotel, Columbus, OH, February 25.

2012. "Remembering and Forgetting 'Our National Calamity': Legacy from the Great Easter 1913 Flood," at the fall conference of the Water Management Association of Ohio (theme: "100 Years of Watershed Events"), Quest Conference Center, Columbus, OH, November 14.

2012. "Ohio's Greatest Disaster: The 1913 Flood in Warren County and Beyond," at the Franklin Area Historical Society symposium "Preserving the Memories of the 1913 Flood," Franklin Public Library, Franklin, OH, March 30. Events in 2013 are listed on the FAHS website.

Page created May 12, 2011.



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